Why did ocean productivity decline abruptly 4.6 million years ago?

Fig. 1. Early Pliocene (4.5 Ma) paleogeographic reconstruction showing deep-sea drill sites (ODP and IODP) discussed in this study. In total, 25 paleoproductivity records from 18 (mostly low-latitude) sites were compiled (closed symbols). Other deep-sea sites (open symbols) and terrestrial records from Central China (squares) were evaluated but not included in the final data compilations. Modern (perennial and equatorial) upwelling regions are indicated as orange shadings. EAM: East Asian Monsoon (green shaded area). PF: Polar Front (Southern Ocean; dashed line). Map generated on www.odsn.de (webpage consulted in 2020). Credit: DOI: 10.1038/s41467–021–27784–6

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